The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development includes a dedicated Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) on water and sanitation (SDG 6), which has a specific target on enhancing the implementation of integrated water resources management (IWRM) (SDG 6.5). Progress towards achieving SDG target 6.5 is measured by two indicators, one of which is 6.5.1: Degree of integrated water resources implementation (0–100). SDG indicator 6.5.1 monitoring is carried out through appointed focal points from national governments, who are responsible for completing a survey on the degree of national IWRM implementation. To gather a variety of views to input into the survey, local focal points should set up multi-stakeholder consultations.
Based on the experience of the 61 countries that have conducted multi- stakeholder consultations for SDG indicator 6.5.1, this document makes recommendations on how to enhance their effectiveness through ensuring the following input legitimacy criteria: (1) stakeholder inclusion; (2) procedural fairness; (3) consensual orientation; and (4) transparency. It also provides a detailed comparative analysis of the strengths and weaknesses for the three main consultation approaches employed to generate and gather multi-stakeholder input for the survey: (1) in-person workshops; (2) online forms and events; and (3) blended in-person and online consultations.