This document explores current thinking about conflict management in the water and sanitation sector and is meant for individuals who want to understand more about the way to analyse, understand and help to manage conflicts. It reviews different options for conflict management, putting special emphasis on mediation to encourage dialogue and shared action to resolve many water supply and sanitation conflicts. The TOP addresses the following issues: What do we mean by conflict?; Prevailing problems and key actors in the water and sanitation sector and some of their interests; Approaches to conflict management and resolution; The concept of mediation, and the role of facilitation, and the post mediation process; The mediator: skills and techniques needed for conflict mediation. The TOP also contains examples on the application of conflict management approaches, interesting articles, books and websites.